Assignment 1 - some more
From your introduction
to online bibliographic tools on 14 September 2004 and, later, your tour of
the botanical material in the Noranda Earth Sciences Library you will have gotten
some ideas about how to find the information you need for your studies of vascular
plant families (click HERE for some of the 2002
You were assigned
a family that is present in the flora of Ontario, at least adventively,
that is not covered in detail in this course. Here are some examples
of how some members of the class handled this assignment. Note that several
sites (e.g. DELTA, TAMU, FNA, etc.) were visited
by most of the class because of the comprehensive nature of their coverage.
On the other hand, some sites like the Kew Record site seem to have been
used by only a few students. Be careful! In researching academic subjects
the chances are that a tool like Kew Record (or BIOSIS or Web of Science)
will get you into the scientific literature much more quickly than the more
general search tools that many of you employed.
title: Pollen grain morphology maple
Search strategy: insert "aceraceae" into yahoo
Description of the website: This site gives a very brief description
of the family and its pollen. The site doesn't seem to be kept up to date,
if I guess correctly, the "8/00" beside the author's name means "last updated
august of 2000". The reference it used was dated in 1975, which might be fine,
but there might be new additional info that's not presented by this site.
Also, this appears to be the only reference. Two pages that this site links
to no longer exist. The author of the site is Owen Davis and one can contact
him via email. (X. Zou)
Search Method: I went on the BOT307 course website and found the suggested
list of major botany websites. I then chose the website for Flora of North
America, and found Annonaceae under the alphabetical listing of the families
Authorship: The author of the page is Robert Kral. His credentials
are unknown. However, the Flora of North America Association is responsible
for the page and is actively maintained at the Harvard University Herbarium.
Organization: A list of facts regarding vegetative and reproductive
morphology is given for the Annonaceae family. The importance of the family
in the tropics is given, as well as a short description of the direction of
research of Annonaceae. A small key is also provided at the bottom of the
page to identify several genuses in the family.
Strengths/Weaknesses: The references used are clearly stated near the
bottom of the page. A list of related links to other databases and flora websites
are available. There are also links to additional information on several genera
of Annonaceae. Contact information for the Flora of North America Association
can be found on the homepage. When the site was last updated is unknown. (J.
[The treatment of the Annonaceae on this site corresponds
to that published in Flora of North America, Vol. 3 (1997).]
[Plant DNA C-values Database (release 2.0, January 2003)]
Search Strategy: http://bubl.ac.uk/link/
[BUBL LINK Catalogue of Internet Resources]
Review: This site uses Plant-C values-of which the authors provide
a brief definition-to organize information on plants. I could search under
Aquifoliaceae and have three hits. The site gave the highest, lowest and the
mean of the Plant-C values as well as the original primary papers from which
it was derived. The 'Paper' column shows the author's papers researching the
particular Plant-C Value. His citation for the website is clearly stated on
the search page and an email is available for further contact. The website
is useful if one is concerned with plant genome size or related genetic work.
The search engine is useful if one wants to search by category, but is not
as easy to use as search engines where you can simply type the name of the
family to look for websites. (C Tse)
Strategy used: searched through sites that have plant databases and
came upon natureserve.org and then searched for Aspleniaceae in its explorer
link Description of website: Provides a hierarchy tree of the family,
meaning it lists its kingdom, then phylum, then class, then order of which
the family Aspleniaceae belongs to. Also lists genera of the family. The link
to the genera opens a page listing the species. There is a link for each species
which opens a page that has a distribution map.
Evaluation: This site provides a large list of species that belong
to the family, meaning this is a very good database. For each species there
is a distribution map of where the species is located in North America. No
text about information of the family itself is not found. However, much information
can be found about the species. Sections of the information provided include:
classification, conservation status, distribution, ecology & life history,
economic attributes, management summary, population/occurrence delineation,
population/occurrence viability. Each description of the species clearly states
the authors/contributors and references. There is also a link for a google
search where more information may be obtained. This site is recently updated
(July 2004), therefore the list of species is up to date. 82 records of species
that belong to Aspleniaceae are found. All work is well organized. This site
therefore would be very useful to find information about the species that
belong to the family Aspleniaceae. (D. Tam)
- NCBI Taxonomy
Searching the keyword 'Bignoniaceae' in the NCBI browser led to pages of very
detailed information on the family Bignoniaceae that would be very useful
for scientific research. However, readers need a strong scientific background
to be able to comprehend the information presented. This website can get a
little confusing when exploring it: On each page, there are many links to
pages with many other links and it is easy to get a little lost and overwhelmed
by all the technical information, however the pages provide very detailed,
original information about plant morphology and lineage, nucleotide, protein,
genome, and taxonomy/phylogeny. In addition, there are many links out to external
information resources for further research. Because this website is maintained
by the U.S. Government, the information given on this site are legitimate
and updated regularly. (N. Soo)
- The Royal Botanical
Gardens - Kew Record of Taxonomic Literature
Universal Resource Locator (URL): http://www.rbgkew.org.uk/bibliographies/KR//KRHomeExt.html
Search Strategy: Link is provided on the BOT307 website
Before I register on the website - There is nothing on record
when I search for Butomaceae. Within Kew Record, search for the genus Butomus,
instead of Butomaceae. By search for information on Butomus, 32 articles are
found, with article name, author, journal name, year of publications, etc.
After I register on the website - I search for the Family Butomaceae,
there are 112 documents listing available. Articles are listed by years of
publication; the oldest article record available is from 1971. This is an
excellent resource of finding literature on Butomaceae. With registration,
it provides with a more thorough and advance search on the subject and larger
number of reference available.
Authority: Royal Botanic Gardens; e-mail contact at the bottom of the
Review: This is an excellent site of locating scientific literature
on any plant family. The key to use this website is registration. It is a
simple process, asking only for your name, organization you belong to, and
e-mail address. After you fill out the information, you are automatically
registered for 10 years! (F. Song)
Callitrichaceae into the search box.
credit for the information on the site goes to: Joe Bischoff, Mikhail
Domrachev, Scott Federhen, Carol Hotton, Detlef Leipe, Vladimir Soussov,
Richard Sternberg, Sean Turner.
the different species in Callitrichaceae and each is a link leading
to more information about the species. Taxonomy ID, rank, genetic code, mitcochondrial
genetic code are provided as well as Entrez records on nucleotide,
protein, popset and taxonomy (which are all links leading to the appropriate
information of the species).
on other sources?:
information is based on other sources because Entrez and Genbank searches
are usually created by scientists all over the world inputting their
information onto the databases.
sources are stated but a list of names of credits is provided at the
bottom of the page. (See
the Entrez records are all links leading to other pages (that belong
to NCBI) with information about the specific species. There are also external information
resources provided which are links to websites outside NCBI which
contain information about the species.
species of Callitriche were further investigated on the site
and the origin sequence of the species is provided on this link: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/viewer.fcgi?db=nucleotide&val=7407804
species' protein sequence is provided at this link: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/viewer.fcgi?db=protein&val=7407805
Title: NCBI Taxonomy Browser
Author(s): Not specified, but website credits go to: J. Bischoff, M.
Domrachev, S. Federhen, C. Hotton, D. Leipe, V. Soussov, R. Sternberg and
Contact Information: Send questions and comments about the site to
Search Strategy: Recommended in the BOT 307H1F Plant Vascular Family
Review: The site is a collection of journal articles, gene sequences,
protein sequences, 3D domains and links. To find information on the Caryophyllaceae,
type the name of the family into the search box. Links to the family and individual
species will appear. For more information, checkmark all the boxes below the
search box. Links to articles, protein sequences, gene sequences, structure
and 3D domains will appear. This site is an excellent source for primary literature
and gene sequences. For example, the site provides the gene sequence for DicGT1
mRNA for Dianthus caryophyllus. To see the gene sequence, click the
<Nucleotide> icon at the top of the page and search
for <Caryophyllaceae> or <Dianthus
caryophyllus>. Another benefit of the site is that it is continuously
being updated. (K. Rivera)
- Search Method:
Google - http://www.google.ca/
Website: Rockrose family (Cistaceae) - http://www.botanical-
Author: Vincent Martinez Centelles. His credentials are not given although
he hosts a large website. His contact information is available at the bottom
of the Botanical-Online homepage.
Evaluation: The website, along with being in three languages, covers
a huge scope of dealing with many aspects of plants. Although a large website,
it is most likely a personal page as it has a guestbook, and the information,
therefore, should be treated carefully. It provides basic information about
the family along with the important genera. The information is also most likely
secondary. Some pictures of species in the important genera are also given.
References and acknowledgements for work on his website have their contact
information listed on the bottom of the homepage. The site also contains advertisements
which, along with the missing credentials of the author, damage its credibility.
Links can be found from the homepage leading to other websites including those
in different languages. I would recommend this website to people interested
in botany, but not worried about detail. (J. Pun)
Search Strategy: Used the search engine infomine (http://infomine.ucr.edu/).
This search engine lead to more sites with material content that had more
depth and substance than the other URLs retrieved using google and WebCrawler.
[It's true that this search engine returns mostly academic
sites, but it knows about far fewer sites than does, say, google. For example,
it doesn't seem to know about any BOT307 family pages because evidently no
one has told it about them. Rosaceae is a good example to try; the BOT307
page comes up on the 7th page of google hits; Infomine finds only 16 sites.]
This web page [part of
the website, "The
Parasitic Plant Connection"] presented
the information in a very organized layout with bolded headings and all information
provided included listed references that indicated secondary sources. The
link back to the homepage showed that this website was affiliated with a university
institution. This homepage was set up in such a way that there was a separate
icon for contact information, references and other links to obtain more information.
Through the listed criteria, this website not only provides a sufficient amount
of content but also a reliable and factual information about convolvulaceae.
Beautiful Flowers of France
Search strategy: google-Crassulaceae
Research: Secondary and Primary
Author: Erick Dronnet
Description: Included range of plant type, general morphology of leaves
flowers and fruit and reproductive type. There were additional pages with
specific species that included photos and specific information regarding leaf
and stem and flower morphology and location. The information was good and
there also was a table of evolutionary classification and the position of
the Crassulaceae family within them. The author also provided contact information
and links to related sites. Initially the site was in French but google translated
it to English. (M. Mpela)
Search Strategy: I have previously visited this page. I decided to
use this page to search for information on Dennstaedtiaceae, and found it.
Information Provided: Information on the genera of Dennstaedtiaceae
are listed as up-to-date news, books, and links.
Evaluation of the URL: ScienceDaily connects you to news, books and
webpages regarding your search terms. The pages on Dennstaedtiaceae genera
do not list news or books but do have links to webpages with information on
Overall: The page does not provide any information. However, it is
useful to link to other pages that will provide information.
NOTE: In searching for websites, it felt very comfortable using websites
to which I am accustomed. I also used sites listed on the bot307 webpage,
sites located from the directory listed on the bot307 webpage, and sites found
using the search engine Google. The fastest and most effective search method
of all was using sites that I am accustomed to. Using websites listed on bot307
took more time as I had to familiarize myself with the site, though I did
find reliable information. Using the directory, was more time consuming because
of the sheer size of the directory. Using google was very strenuous and tiring,
but was necessary because the family Dennstaedtiaceae was not listed in the
other websites given on the bot307 coursepage. (S. Meerwali)
with Infomine above, sciencedaily doesn't seem to return anywhere near the
riches that google does (try for yourself to see if any BOT307 pages (for
example) that deal with families that we've studied are found. "Comfort"
may not be the best criterion to go by in searching for information, and
instead it may be helpful to get comfortable scanning google output for
sites that look promising.]
Search Strategy: I used INFOMINE (http://infomine.ucr.edu/)
and typed "plant families" in the search box. I went through all the websites
and chose "SWISS_PROT" and then typed "Dryopteridaceae" and selected NEWT
Taxonomy in options. It displayed one hit for Dryopteridaceae.
Authority/Affiliation: Swiss-Prot uses NCBI databases as cross-referenced
databases. Additionally, Swiss-Prot has their own several databases. This
website is affiliated with by the Swiss Institute of Bioinformatics which
provides them with ExPASy (Expert Protein Analysis System) proteomics (web)
Currency: Like NCBI Taxonomy, Swiss-Prot website is constantly modified
and updated. Content Coverage/Reliability/Accuracy: Swiss-Prot provides the
information nucleotide, protein sequences or gene obtained from a particular
organism similar to NCBI taxonomy website. Swiss-Prot's results show the number
of Swiss-Prot entries along with TrEMBL entries. Unlike NCBI, Swiss-Prot does
not provide any external information on the organism instead it strictly gives
the protein or gene sequenced obtained from the organism. This website provides
accurate and reliable information as it cross-references with other databases
from NCBI. Organization: Unlike the NCBI website organization, Swiss-Prot
shows the results in a very organized way. It displays the database entry
in very effective way as all the information is organized under headings.
The sequences are displayed in two different formats. Also, the name of protein
and gene are clearly stated Conclusion: I like Swiss-Prot website better than
NCBI taxonomy website because Swiss-Prot website was easy to follow and also
easy to perform search. Additionally, I was quickly able to pick out the species
I searched in NCBI to find proteins and genes obtained from it. Swiss-Prot
also mentioned the gene named rbcL obtained from this specie in contrast
to NCBI taxonomy which only gave the name of protein. (S. Malik)
- URL: http://www.nybg.org/bsci/hcol/vasc/Eriocaulaceae.html
Search Strategy: from The New York Botanical Garden Vascular Plant
Types Database a search for my family generated this site
Evaluation: This site is a catalogue of about 606 specimens under the
taxa of the family Eriocaulaceae: Carptotepala, Dupatya, Eriocaulon,
Fockonia, Lachnocaulon, Leiothrix, Mesanthemum,
Paepalanthus, Rondonanthus, Syngonanthus, Tonina
and Wurdackia. Specific plant specimens were given a current name,
the collector, brief description, location, habitat and type. Detailed images
for each specimen were provided. This site would be useful for research in
a particular plant in the family, but not for general information about Eriocaulaceae.
The New York Botanical Garden is a museum with educational and research programs
related with plants. (V. Liu)
- Wikipedia: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hamamelidaceae
Search strategy: Subject directories defined [dir.yahoo.com], Flowering
Wikipedia is a free content encyclopedia written collaboratively by contributors
worldwide. The author of the document is not provided since everyone is freely
to edit and modify the content of this page and the author's qualification
to write on the topic remains unknown. This is an example of non-authoritative
source and the visitors looking for references should be suspicious and selective.
- URL: http://www.treeguide.com/Family.asp?FamilyID=161&Region=NorthAmerican
Search Method: This website was found by searching for the term, "Lauraceae"
in the Google search engine.
This webpage provides very brief and general information about the plant family,
Lauraceae. The common name, a brief description of the Lauraceae family's
characteristics, number of species within the family and taxonomic classification
are provided. This page is published by Athenic Systems, an information technology
company that specializes in providing general information regarding plant
families, including Lauraceae, to the general public and to organizations
that manage land (e.g. botanical gardens, cities, landscapers). Athenic Systems
obtains its information from its own botanists, horticulturists and foresters,
as well as the University of Kentucky. Sources are not listed on website.
Links to species of plants belonging to Lauraceae are provided. These links
lead to pages that provide the genus and species names of the plant and its
area of distribution in the world. (P. Kwan)
- Website: The
Search Strategy: Link from California Native Plant LINK EXCHANGE
Contact: Tom Rosatti email@example.com and Richard Moe firstname.lastname@example.org
Credit: James C. Hickman, B.G. Baldwin, S. Boyd, B.J. Ertter, D.J.
Keil, R.W. Patterson, T.J. Rosatti, and D.H. Wilken.
Evaluation: This website is essentially a flora for California. It
provides two keys which cover nine of the ten (according to this website)
species in the family. Provides habit, morphological and anatomical details
for the family, genus, and the nine out of ten species present in family.
Each species also has ecology, elevation, bioregional distribution map for
California, and distribution outside of California where applicable is listed.
Of special interest is potential threats to the species (such as agriculture)
and a link to the Jepson Horticultural Database which has horticultural information
for some of the species. Overall this is a superb website. It is particularly
suited to the Limnanthaceae because almost all the species in this family
are present in California, and as a result are listed on this website. (W.
Search Method: Altavista.com; Web search query: "lycopodiaceae"
Organization: The Provincial Museum of Newfoundland and Labrador; Department
of Tourism, Culture and Recreation
Image Credit: Unstated
Review: This web site mainly serves as a virtual tour on plants found
in Newfoundland and Labrador. Quality digital pictures of plant genera that
belong to family Lycopodiaceae are displayed by clicking on the genera names.
The names of the photographers are stated for every group of pictures. The
major point of improvement of this web site would be its lack of text and
descriptions on the plants of interest. Images are categorized by parts of
the plant body; descriptions of where the photos were taken are displayed
on the headings. The photographers seem to work for the organization. (T.
- Website's Name:
American Journal of Botany http://www.amjbot.org.myaccess.library.utoronto.ca/
=relevance &author1=&fulltext=Melastomataceae&pubdate _year=&volume= &firstpage=
[Note that if you click on this link you will have to
log in as a U of T student, staff member, or other person who is authorized
to use the U of T online journal subscriptions]
Search Strategy: By going to the University of Toronto's library web
page, I had access to e-journals. Then by typing in a key search word such
as "Botany", a number of journals containing that word showed up. I chose
to browse through the American Journal of Botany and searched for the family
Evaluation: This URL resulted in finding 31 articles about Melastomataceae.
Therefore, the information that was provided was original and they were clearly
acknowledged. This site mainly consisted of a myriad of articles that could
be read online and were relevant to my family of interest. The information
that was provided about the family varied from journal to journal, although
I did come across some journals which provided general information about the
family followed by the related research information. The homepage did provide
links to other related websites; however, what I found very interesting was
that it was possible to search for Melastomataceae in other journals directly
from this URL, as it was an option available at the bottom of the page, making
it possible to access other references very easily. I have to say that one
of the best ways to find information about the family is through e-journals
and students who do have access to this method should take advantage of it.
- Website: Washington
State Department of Ecology
How I found it: Through Yahoo , search words Menyanthaceae
Author: Kathy Hamel
Contact info: email@example.com
Author Credentials: N/A
Last updated: N/A
Negative: The State of Washington does not warrant accuracy of information
published on this system. Although the information is useful and well presented,
the website is not reliable since there are no claims of reliability of the
information on this website and information about the author credentials of
this site is not available either. Also, the website does not provide other
links to other pages with information on this plant family.
Positive: This is a very useful site. It is an online version of the
aquatic plant identification manual for Washington's Freshwater Plants. This
site is easy to use, as I just went right to the plant species index to find
my information. It gives a short description of the leaf, step, flower, fruit,
root, propagation, importance of plant, distribution and habitat. A useful
thing is that they have a section that explains what the plant may be confused
with providing a link to that as well. It also provides pictures of the flowers
as well. (C. Gulesserian)
- Digital Flora of Texas,
Texas A&M University
Search method: While browsing around the Digital Flora of Texas website,
I happened to stumble on some links that led to the TAMU Bioinformatics Working
Group site, and even more clicking led to this page (http://www.csdl.tamu.edu/FLORA/centexflora/testing/demo1.html),
which allowed me to search for the family I needed.
This is a very informative page, not just because it talks about the vegetative
and reproductive morphology of the Nyssaceae, but because it also explains
this family's relationship with a very close relative, the Cornaceae. The
page explains when Nyssaceae and Cornaceae are considered as one family, and
when they are not (which also sheds light on why there are so few pages on
the web dedicated to the general characteristics of the Nyssaceae family).
It then further explains in great detail the characteristics of the genus
Nyssa and its species, such as morphology (vegetative, reproductive,
fruit) and geographical location, as well as practical uses. The author, Monique
Reed, is a Texas A&M Herbarium botanist. This primary source web page, along
with the DELTA page, is probably one of the best sites on the web to find
various Nyssaceae characteristics. (J. Geronimo)
- Document Title:
Osmunda regalis: Flora of Northern Ireland web site
Search Strategy: Using the Google search engine using the keywords
"family Osmundaceae", I found this website that contained a database of the
flora that are present in Northern Ireland. A further search on the website
(using the family name) led me to the specific species indicated.
Content: Provides general description of the species regarding habitat
and morphology. Photos and maps are also available. A high school student
can understand information presented.
Authority: No specific author is mentioned. However, the website states
that the information in the database was collected through the Botanical Society
of the British Isles (BSBI) Atlas 2000 Project. Botanists from the UK and
Ireland performed detailed surveys of the flowering plants and ferns growing
in the area. The information was gathered from various survey teams in Ireland
and from the Botany Department of the Ulster Museum. There were links to all
the contributing groups and contact information was available. The records
are held electronically by the Vascular Plant Database for Northern Ireland
Affiliation: The sponsors of the website are the Environment and Heritage
Service (EHS) and the Ulster Museum (which runs a collection-centered environmental
project called Habitas). EHS is an agency with the Department of Environment
of the Northern Ireland government.
Currency: There is no specific date mentioned or dates of update. There
is a copyright date of 2000-2004 from the EHS. The information was collected
from the BSBI Atlas 2000 Project that ran from 1995 to 1999. All links in
the website are updated and appears to be well maintained.
Reliability/Accuracy: The material appears to be factual, accurate,
and reliable as major agencies with the government and museums are involved.
Links to all the organizations involved in the project are available and the
information gathered appears to be original research material. The contribution
of information from the museum, however, is not clearly stated and may be
Weaknesses/Strengths: Information appears to be from reliable sources.
However, the information for this specific species is short and not very detailed.
- Flora of China Website
Search Strategy - I used the search engine www.dogpile.com,
which uses google.com, about.com, askjeeves.com, and yahoo.com, to come up
with a list of websites.
Authorship - This website was based on the Flora of China book outlining
the botanical diversity of China. The authors for this page are Qiu Huaxing
and C. Thomas Philbrick. There is no information suggesting that this is a
government sponsored project; however the site mentions many collaborations
with other botanical institutions such as the Missouri Botanical Garden.
Content - The site provides information about the general appearance
of the plant, reproductive type, and prevalence in China. There is only one
source cited - a journal article from Popularis Sin.
Organization - The families are arranged according to the volume and
page in the actual Flora of China.
Stength/Weakness - All the information about Podostemaceae is on short
page, making it easy to view; however, the text was written in a manner that
was difficult to read. The text lacked any sentence structure; it just listed
features of the plant family.
Are there links? There were no links to other sites about Podostemaceae,
but there were links to other Floras, such as of Pakistan, North America,
and Missouri on the homepage. There were also links to many online periodical
resources. (S. Chung)
- FloraBase - the Western
Australian Flora: http://florabase.calm.wa.gov.au/browse/flora?f=109&level=f&id=109
The BIOME website also listed this site as a search result.
The author of this page is Leslie Watson, who is one of the editors of the
WAGENERA (Western Australian Genera) project. This site is sponsored by Western
Australian Herbarium and the Australian government. It has a very clear layout
with clear subheadings and has more detail than the websites discussed above.
There is also a small section on physiology and biochemistry, which is not
found on other sites. There is a map showing the location of species belonging
to this family in Western Australia and a link to a list of books on related
topics. This, along with the Flora of North America website, is the best internet
resource for researching plant families. (D. Chung)
Title: Eichhornia Crassipes - Pontederiaceae/Pickerelweed Family
i) Internet Directory for Botany, http://www.ou.edu/cas/botany-
micro/idb-alpha/bot-bc.html#c, search for Pontederiaceae
ii) Link to http://aquat1.ifas.ufl.edu/welcome.html
(University of Florida, Center for Aquatic and Invasive Plants - IFAS)
iii) Link to http://aquat1.ifas.ufl.edu/allplants.html
iv) Search by common name, keyword
v) Link to http://aquat1.ifas.ufl.edu/eiccra.html
vi) Link to http://aquat1.ifas.ufl.edu/eiccra.pdf
(Information from the book, Identification & Biology of Non-Native Plants
in Florida's Natural Areas)
i) Plant vegetative morphology
ii) Ecological significance
iii) Geographical distribution
iv) Life history - Reproduction
v) Two pictures of the eichhornia crassipes
Author(s): Langeland and Burks
Evaluation: At first, I found the IFAS homepage a little confusing
to read being bombarded with links to different botanical sites and pictures,
but once I found the link for plant information and pictures, it was quite
easy to navigate through. There was also a link to a glossary in which I
found quite useful. This website that I came upon contained information
regarding Eichhornia crassipes (water hyacinth), which is one genus
classified under the Pontederiaceae family, and its role as a non-native
invasive species in the United States. The information provided about the
plants vegetative morphology and reproductive mechanism was easy to read
and to understand without any of the heavy scientific terminology used by
most of the websites above. There were only two pictures provided which
were not very clear, and additional links for more information regarding
Eichhornia crasspies or its family, Pontederiaceae, were not available.
I am not sure if this information is original. It was extracted from a book
authored by Langeland and Burks called the Identification & Biology of
Non-Native Plants in Florida's Natural Areas, but sources were not acknowledged.
Overall, I found the IFAS homepage to be very useful in researching invasive
plant species in North America, in addition to the Pontederiaceae family. (K. Chin)
- Native Plants of Montara
This site is maintained by Chuck Kozak, with its latest update in October
The information is not fully original, as the website includes a list of references
used while the site was compiled. There are about 20 links to general botany
sites and sites pertaining to natural areas in and around Montara Mountain, south of San Francisco, California.
The site includes general information on the family Pteridaceae and more specifically
on the species Pentagramma triangularis (Golden Black Fern). Information
on this genus includes data on Fronds, Pinnae, Sori distribution and status.
There are no links specifically to Pteridaceae. This website was found via
"Google search", when the word Pteridaceae was typed in.
are plant families? | How do we distinguish
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