spp., subcosmopolitan, temperate, especially N temperate. Trees,
shrubs, and herbs. Leaves simple, compound, or dissected, usually spirally
arranged. Stipules usually present (but not in Spiraeoideae), often joined
to the petiole.
Flowers usually perfect, perigynous or (in Maloideae) epigynous. K (3-)5(-10), often appearing as lobes on a hypanthium; C (3-)5(-10), imbricate, often large, rarely absent. A (1, 5-)20 to many, usually in sets of 5 that develop centripetally, filaments usually free and inserted on hypanthium. Inner surface of hypanthium often nectariferous. G 1-many, in (most) Maloideae developing into a hypanthial (inferior) ovary.
Recently, data from molecular and morphological studies of Rosaceae evolution have provided new insights into evolution in this family. As a result, the "traditional" subdivision of the family into four subfamilies (Rosoideae, Spiraeoideae, Amygdaloideae, Maloideae) has been superceded by the phylogenetic one outlined below in which monophyletic groups within just three subfamilies (Rosoideae, Dryadoideae, Spiraeoideae) are recognized as supertribes, tribes, and subtribes.
Judd et al. 2002 , pp. 292-298.
Tribal classification and Ontario genera of Rosaceae (Potter et al. 2007; non-Ontario genera in blue):
|Rosoideae - Base chromosome number (x) = 7.|
|Sanguisorbeae - Agrimonia, Sanguisorba; gynoecium usually with a single, simple pistil, fruit an achene.|
|Potentilleae - Fragaria, Potentilla; x = 8 in Alchemilla. Gynoecium apocarpous, fruit an aggregate of achenes (achenetum).|
|Rosa; fruit an aggregate of achenes (achenetum).|
|Colurieae - Geum, Fallugia; fruit an aggregate of achenes (achenetum).|
|Rubus; fruit an aggregate of drupelets (drupetum).|
|Spiraeoideae - Fruit generally an aggregate of follicles (follicetum), x = 9 except as noted below.|
|Sorbarieae - Sorbaria|
|Spiraeeae - Aruncus, Spiraea|
|Kerrieae - Kerria|
|Osmaronieae - Oemleria|
|Amygdaleae - Prunus|
|Neillieae - Physocarpus,|
Note the many commercially important fruit plants in this family, e.g. Malus (apples), Prunus (almonds, apricots, cherries, peaches, plums), Rubus (blackberries, rasberries, etc.), Pyrus (pears), Cydonia (quince), Eriobotrya (loquat), Mespilus (medlar); also scents (Rosa) and cultivated, ornamental shrubs. "Temperate gardens would be very different if Rosaceae did not exist" (Mabberley 1987).
The Flora North America treatment of the Rosaceae (Vol. 9) is not yet available.
L. Watson and M. J. Dallwitz
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