Families of Vascular Plants - Botany 307F


Click here to find out more about Ginkgo's name. You can also read a poem inspired by the leaves of a Ginkgo here.

Click here for a page with images of Ginkgo gametophyte and gamete development.

Drawing of Zamia pumila by R. Joos

Ginkgo biloba ovules (scale in cm), as seen in the BOT307 lab at the end of September (in Toronto). Ginkgo ovules contain a massive megagametophyte that is approximately 1 cm in diameter, and in which we can observe archegonia with egg cells about 0.5 mm in diameter. Click here to see a size comparison with an angiosperm ovule. Leaves and ovules develop on lateral short shoots much like those of some conifers.

Photos: (above) E. Harris © 2000 Royal Ontario Museum; (right) ©2003 T. A. Dickinson.

Ginkgo see (diagrammatic)

Ginkgo seed in diagrammatic longitudinal section. Red arrow, fleshy sarcotesta. In black (black arrow), hard sclerotesta. Not shown, a thin, membrane-like endotesta just inside the sclerotesta. Pink, sporophytic tissue; green, megagametophyte. Note that in Gymnosperms the different layers of the seed coat all develop from the single integument of the ovule.

Diagram adapted from Fig. 22-15 in Bold, H. C. et al. (1987), Morphology of plants and fungi, 5th ed. New York, Harper & Row.

| What are plant families? | How do we distinguish them? | How and why do we study them? | Selected vascular plant families of Ontario | Reading List | Course outline |

|EEB337H1 Home Page | What's New | U of T Ecology & Evolutionary Biology | University of Toronto |

© 2008 Department of Ecology & Evolutionary Biology and 2000-2006 Botany Department, University of Toronto.

Please send your comments to; last updated 14-Sep-2008