Families of Vascular Plants - Botany 307F
The relationships shown in the graphic at the right are evolutionary, rather than phylogenetic.Click HERE to go to a page that depicts recently developed hypotheses about the phylogenetic relationships between groups of living seed plants.

"Angiosperms" (flowering plants)

The bubble diagram at the right is adapted from Cronquist (1988)
Both these groups of flowering plants produce ovules enclosed by sporophyte tissue. Upon fertilization and maturation of the seeds within, these enclosures (in some cases together with other flower or inflorescence parts) are termed fruits.

"Magnoliopsida" (dicots)

These are almost certainly a paraphyletic assemblage of non-monocots, regardless of whether the flowering plant tree looks as shown at the right (click on the image for the full-size tree) or as in one of the trees shown HERE.

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Liliopsida (monocots)

Monocots, however, do appear to be monophyletic, with morphological as well as molecular synapomorphies (Judd et al. p. 180 and p. 241ff.).

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| What are plant families? | How do we distinguish them? | How and why do we study them? | Selected vascular plant families of Ontario | Reading List | Course outline |

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Please send your comments to tim.dickinson@utoronto.ca; last updated 25-Oct-2008