APPENDIX II -- BIBLIOGRAPHY
1. Vascular Plants
Britton L.N. & A. Brown. 1913. An illustrated flora of the United States, Canada and British Possessions. Volumes 1, 2 & 3. Hafner Press, New York. (a classic, excellent in its time, with fine illustrations, but unrevised since 1913 and very out of date)
Fernald, M.L. 1970. Gray's Manual of Botany, Eighth (Centennial) Edition. D. Van Nostrand, New York. 1632 pp. (a classic, comprehensive for the south, covering a wider geographic range than Gleason ; illustrations rather few and poor)
Flora of North America Editorial Committee (1993). Flora of North America, Vol. 1, Introduction. New York, Oxford University Press.
Flora of North America Editorial Committee (1993). Flora of North America, Vol. 2, Pteridophytes and Gymnosperms. New York, Oxford University Press.
Flora of North America Editorial Committee (1997). Flora of North America, Vol. 3, Magnoliidae and Hamamelidae. New York, Oxford University Press.
Gleason, H.A. 1978. The new Britton and Brown illustrated flora of the northeastern United States and adjacent Canada. Volumes 1, 2 & 3. Hafner Press, New York. (the best all-round vascular flora; excellent illustrations and clear keys; but out-of-print, expensive, and not a field guide)
Gleason, H.A. & A. Cronquist. 1963. Manual of vascular plants of northeastern United States and adjacent Canada. D. Van Nostrand, New York. 810 pp. (a condensed version of the above, with no illustrations; a good field reference, but not a beginner's guide; out of print)
Gleason, H.A. & A. Cronquist. 1991. Manual of vascular plants of northeastern United States and adjacent Canada. New York Botanical Garden, New York. 910 pp. (the second, updated edition of Gleason & Cronquist 1963)
Scoggan, H.J. 1978-1979. The flora of Canada. Volumes 1-4. National Museums of Canada, Ottawa. (a useful reference, but with no species descriptions it is best used a glorified checklist)
Voss, E. G. (1972). Michigan flora - Part I, Gymnosperms and Monocots. Cranbrook Institute of Science and University of Michigan Herbarium, Bloomfield Hills MI. xv+488 pp.
Voss, E. G. (1985). Michigan flora - Part II, Dicots (Saururaceae - Cornaceae). Cranbrook Institute of Science and University of Michigan Herbarium, Ann Arbor MI. xix+724 pp.
Voss, E. G. (1996). Michigan flora - Part III, Dicots (Pyrolaceae
- Compositae). Cranbrook Institute of Science and
University of Michigan Herbarium, Ann Arbor MI. xix+622 pp.
Trees & Shrubs
Brockman, C.F. 1979. Trees of North America. Golden Press, New York. 280 pp. (a very good pocket guide with range maps, but lacking any keys; not comprehensive as it covers the entire continent)
Farrar, J. L. 1995. Trees in Canada. Fitzhenry & Whiteside, Markham, Canada. 502 pp. (an excellent book combining photographs and simplified keys; more up-to-date and comprehensive than Hosie 1975)
Hosie, R.C. 1975. Native trees of Canada. Canadian Foestry Service, Department of the Environment, Ottawa. 380 pp. (an excellent book, well written and illustrated, with simplified keys; covers only trees and only native species)
McKay, S.M. & P.M. Catling. 1979. Trees, shrubs and flowers to know in Ontario. J.M. Dent and Sons (Canada) Ltd. 208 pp. (an excellent, condensed flora; not comprehensive, but useful to have in the pocket)
Petrides, G. 1972. A field guide to trees and shrubs. Houghton Miflin Company, Boston. pp 1128 In the Peterson series. (popular, but over simplified, especially the illustrations, and therefore not always easy to use)
Petrides, G. 1988. Eastern Trees. Houghton Miflin Company, Boston. 272 pp. Peterson Field Guides #11. (supercedes the earlier book, and is much better)
Soper, J. H., & M. L. Heimburger. 1982. Shrubs of Ontario. Royal Ontario Museum, Toronto. 495 pp. (an excellent guide to Ontario shrubs with location maps)
Symonds, G.W.D. 1958. The tree identification book. William Merrow and Co., New York. 272 pp.
Symonds, G.W.D. 1963. The shrub identification book. William Morror & Co., New York. 379 pp. (both the tree and the shrub books use picture keys based on photographs, but lack any descriptions and therefore of limited use)
Peterson, R. T. & M. McKenny. 1968. A field guide to wildflowers. Northeastern and north-central North America. Houghton Mifflin, Bonston. 420 pp. Peterson Field Guides #17. (a classic; identification based on flower colour and structure; many species not covered)
Newcomb, L. 1979. Newcomb's wildflower guide. Little & Brown Co., Toronto. 470 pp. (by far the best wildflower guide available and invaluable in the field; many species not covered)
Niering, W. A. 1979. The Audubon society field guide to North
American wildflowers: eastern region. Knopf/Random House, New
York. (identification using photographs based on flower colour;
not too useful as a primary field guide)
Brown, L. 1979. Grasses: an identification guide. Houghton Mifflin Co., Boston. (a beginner's guide to the sometimes bewildering world of grasses; relatively few species covered)
Dore, W.G. & J. McNeill. 1980. Grasses of Ontario. Agriculture Canada Monograph #26. 566 pp. (an excellent book with maps and clear keys, but not enough illustrations)
Hitchcock, A.S. 1971. Manual of the grasses of the United States. 2nd Edition. Volumes 1 & 2. Dover, New York. 1051 pp. (a classic and very useful, but covering many species not found in Ontario)
Knobel, E. 1977. Field guide to the grasses, sedges and rushes of the United States. Dover, New York. 83 pp. (a quick & dirty key with many gaps and missing information, but a useful beginners book to have in the field)
Pohl, P.W. 1978. How to know the grasses. Wm. C. Brown Co.,
Dubuque, Iowa. 200 pp. (a useful book with the advantages and
disadvantages of the 'How to know ..' series)
Cobb, B. 1963. A field guide to the ferns and their related families. Houghton Miffling Co., Boston. 281 pp. (volume 10 of the Peterson field guide series; the best field guide to ferns available, but the keys are not always easy to work through)
Cody, W. J. 1978. Ferns of the Ottawa district. Agriculture Canada, Ottawa. 112 pp. (a useful local guide to ferns; good keys and illustrations)
Cody, W. J. & D. M. Britton. 1989. Ferns and fern allies of Canada. Agriculture Canada, Ottawa. 430 pp. (an excellent guide with keys, illustrations, range maps and an extensive bibliography)
Lellinger, D. B. 1985. A field manual of the ferns and fern-allies of the United States and Canada. Smithsonian Institution Press, Washington. (an excellent large-format field guide combining keys and photographs; includes a lot of basic information on fern biology)
Mickel, J. T. 1979. How to know the ferns and fern allies. Wm. C.
Brown Co., Dubuque, Iowa. 229 pp. (a useful book with the
advantages and disadvantages of the 'How to know ..' series)
Conard, H.S. & P.L. Redfearn Jr. 1979. How to know the mosses and
liverworts. 2nd Edition. Wm. C. Brown Co., Dubuque, Iowa. 302 pp.
(a simplified guide; not comprehensive, but usually good enough
to the genus level and easy to use)
Crum, H. 1976. Mosses or the Great Lakes forest. University Herbarium. Ann Arbor, Michigan. 40 pp. (the best moss flora of the area, but requires a microscope for using the keys)
Crum, H. & L.E. Anderson 1981. Mosses of eastern North America. Volumes 1 & 2. Columbia University Press, New York. (a comprehensive reference work)
Haavisto V.F. 1974. Sphagnum mosses of Ontario. Identification by
macrosscopic features. Canadian Forestry Service, Sault Ste.
Marie, Ontario. Information Report 0-X-216. (an excellent way to
start untangling the Sphagnum species)
Schuster R.M. 1977. Boreal Hepaticae. A manual of liverworts of Minnesota and adjacent regions. J. Cramer, Germany. 332 pp. (the only single volume guide to hepatics in the area; technical)
Schuster R.M. 1966-1980. The Hepaticae and Anthocerotae of North America. Volumes 1-4. Columbia University Press, New York. (a monster work and superb reference collection with beautiful illustrations; the standard hepatic flora for North America)
Steere, W.C. 1940. Liverworts of Southern Michigan. Cranbrook
Institute of Science. 97 pp. (very limited scope, and rather out
of date, but a useful, clear and simple guide)
Brodo, I.M. 1981. Lichens of the Ottawa region. National Museums of Canada Syllogues 29. 137 pp. (moderately technical and limited to the Ottawa area, but up to date and very useful)
Hale, M.E. 1980. How to know the lichens. Wm. C. Brown Co., Dubuque, Iowa. 216 pp. (an excellent field guide, well written and usually accurate, but with some gaps in the north)
The Names of Plants - Guide to Plant Collection & Identification © Jane M. Bowles 1996